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In Canada, hate crimes are criminal acts that are motivated by prejudice, bias, or hate based on factors such as race, national or ethnic origin, language, colour, religion, sex, age, mental or physical disability, sexual orientation, or gender identity or expression. These crimes target individuals or groups because of their membership in a particular social or demographic category. 

The Canadian legal framework addresses hate crimes through various statutes and provisions. The main legislation pertaining to hate crimes in Canada is the Criminal Code of Canada. Sections 318 to 320 of the Criminal Code specifically deal with hate propaganda and hate crimes. These sections outline offences related to promoting hatred against identifiable groups and inciting or advocating for genocide.

Here are some key points to help you understand hate crime laws and their consequences in Canada:

Hate Propaganda

Section 319 of the Criminal Code prohibits the public incitement of hatred against any identifiable group. It is illegal to communicate statements in public that incite or promote hatred, based on any of the Criminal Code’s many protected grounds. The offence requires that the statements be willfully made and that they incite hatred against an identifiable group


If convicted of a hate propaganda offence, an individual can face penalties that may include imprisonment for up to two years. If the offence is committed in a way that threatens the safety of an individual or the public, or if it results in property damage, the maximum penalty increases to imprisonment for up to five years

Aggravating Factor

Hate motivation is considered an aggravating factor in sentencing for other crimes committed with hateful intent. This means that if a crime is committed with a bias or prejudice against a protected group, the court may impose a more severe sentence.


Reporting Hate Crimes:

If you believe a hate crime has occurred, it is crucial to report it to local law enforcement authorities. They can conduct an investigation and, if appropriate, lay charges against the perpetrators. You can also contact organizations like local police services, human rights commissions, or community organizations specializing in hate crime response for guidance and support.

It's important to note that the information provided here is a general overview, and specific cases may involve more nuanced legal considerations. If you require legal advice or want more detailed information, contact us today.